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I don't really enjoy writing about the sadder times of Jewish practice, but they are also necessary, until Hashem grants us a return of His Glory and frees us from exile.
There is a period of about three weeks during the summer during which we remember the Destruction of the Holy Temple more than we do during the rest of the year.
It begins with the Fast of the Seventeenth of Tammuz (that is, the seventeenth day of the Jewish month called Tammuz) and ends the day after the Fast of Tisha B'Av (the ninth day of the Jewish month called Av), 22 days later. There are special Laws for the 17th of Tammuz, and there are special, different Laws for the Ninth of Av, and there are special Laws for the three weeks in-between them.
During the Three Weeks we slowly increase our level of mourning, until it reaches its peak on Tisha B'Av. Throughout the three weeks, from the 17th of Tammuz until the middle of the tenth day of Av we do not cut our hair, listen to music or buy new things that would give us joy. The last nine and a half days, from the beginning of the month of Av until midday the day after Tisha B'Av, we do not eat meat or drink wine. On Tisha B'Av itself, we may not eat or drink anything at all, and we show our sorrow in several other ways as well. See below for articles explaining all this.
Why do we Mourn for the Holy Temple?
Three things to mourn for, on two levels. Yet a more important thing to mourn for.
The Fast of the 17th Day of Tammuz
The 17th Day of Tammiuz, what happened on that day, and the Laws of that day.
The Three Weeks
The Laws of the days from the 17th day of Tammuz until the beginning of the month of Av.
The Nine Days
The Laws of the nine days from the beginning of the month of Tammuz until Tisha B'Av.
The Fast of the Ninth of Av
What happened on Tisha B'Av, and why we mourn on that particular day. Some of the Laws that we observe on the fast day of Tish B'Av.
The Day After Tisha B'Av
The Laws of the tenth day of the month of Av, the half-day of mourning.
Erev Tisha B'Av
The Day before Tisha B'Av
The Sabbath and Tisha B'Av
We do not mourn on Shabbos. So what do we do when Tisha B'Av is on Shabbos?